Monthly Archives: December 2016

A Typical Church Service in the Second Century

Several weeks ago I published a series of posts on the biblical understanding of tithing and giving.  (You can read them here: Part 1Part 2 & Part 3). I discussed how the early Christian church collected funds specifically for the purpose of redistributing back to those in need. We read about this in Acts 2:44-45 and Acts 4:32-35.

This practice continued to go on well into the second century, as evidenced by the writings of Justin Martyr, a major Christian apologist during the second century. The following is an except from his First Apology, and in it Justin describes a typical church service.

And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things.

Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons.

And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours [uses it to help] the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need. (The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. I, Justin Martyr’s First Apology, Chapter LXVII.)

The typical meeting consisted of (1) the reading of scripture, (2) a teaching/exhortation related to what was just read, (3) communal prayers, (4) the partaking of communion, (5) and the giving of donations by well-off members as they saw fit. These donations were then given to orphans, widows, prisoners, foreigners, and anyone else in need.

This was written around 155 AD, showing the continued practice of giving collected funds to the needy. It did not cease to be practiced for more than one hundred years after Jesus ascended into heaven, which shows remarkable consistency.

I’ve said it before. Churches should show more serious intention to follow scripture and the example demonstrated by the early church. Love for money inhibits the church from fully functioning as the body of Christ. When financial abuses occur by churches and church leaders (and they do occur), this blasphemes the name of God. As Jesus said, “you cannot serve both God and money.” (Matthew 6:24) As our country contracts economically and people struggle to make ends meet, this will become increasingly important.

The other aspects of corporate worship may sound familiar. Some Christian denominations still have a public reading from scripture, although it seems to be conspicuously absent from your typical evangelical service. To be fair, public reading had even greater need then, as access to scripture was much more limited than today. Illiteracy was common among the poor, and the cost to copy manuscripts was much more prohibitive.

The rest mentioned by Justin—the teachings, prayer, and communion—still occur in churches today, with variation in the particulars. He does not mention musical worship in this excerpt, although we know that “hymns and spiritual songs” are mentioned by Paul in scripture (Ephesians 5:19). Obviously, the concert style of worship music now would be altogether foreign to these early Christians.

Of course, this description is not scripture. There is no command that a church needs to be conducted in this particular way. However, if we understand where the church came from, it can free us from traditional expectations that aren’t found in scripture. It can free us to worship in ways that spiritually edify the church and bring glory to Jesus.

Did God Turn Away From Jesus on the Cross?

As Jesus hung on the cross, He cried out in a loud voice, “‘Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?’ (which means ‘My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?’)” (Matthew 27:46)

This verse, and the equivalent in Mark 13:34, has been used to support grossly unbiblical teachings about God—false teachings we may have heard and accepted at some point without truly questioning their validity.

I have heard people reference this verse, and explain that God the Father turned away from Jesus in that moment. Or that the Father abandoned His Son and could no longer look upon Him. It has even been taught that for a split second, Jesus and His Father were completely separated from one another, no longer in unity. (All of which are patently false.)

Is that what Jesus is saying when He cried out? That God abandoned Him and they separated from each other for a moment in time?

Absolutely not. In crying those words, Jesus was giving a reference to a specific Psalm of David. By crying out “My Father, My Father, why have your forsaken me,” Jesus was directly quoting the first line of Psalm 22. We reference the Psalms by their number, but Jews during that time would reference the first words of that particular Psalm. Similarly, we refer to the first book of the Bible as “Genesis,” but Jews know it as the Hebrew equivalent of, “In the Beginning.” In the same way, those listening to Jesus (or reading the account in the gospels) would immediately understand the reference Jesus made.

By quoting the first words of Psalm 22, Jesus both expresses the human anguish he was experiencing at that moment and refers to the prophetic Psalm that spoke of His very sacrifice for humanity. A Psalm that, contrary to the unbiblical teachings we may have heard, speaks to the very fact that God had not abandoned Jesus at all. Rather, God was faithful to Him, even in death.

Psalm 22 speaks so directly to Jesus and His death on the cross, it is a wonder that Jesus’ words have ever been misunderstood at all. Just listen to the words of the Psalm. David begins with the same exact cry Jesus utters on the cross.

1 My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
Why are you so far from saving me,
so far from my cries of anguish?
2 My God, I cry out by day, but you do not answer,
by night, but I find no rest.

David then speaks of how the Israelites have historically trusted in God, that “they cried out and were saved” by the Holy One. And then we read these prophetic verses. Verses that speak of Jesus being mocked by men as He hung on the cross.

7 All who see me mock me;
they hurl insults, shaking their heads.
8 “He trusts in the Lord,” they say,
“let the Lord rescue him.
Let him deliver him,
since he delights in him.”

Despite this mocking, David prophetically speaks how Jesus still trusted in God. David goes on, again referencing the crucifixion of Jesus:

16 Dogs surround me,
a pack of villains encircles me;
they pierce my hands and my feet.
17 All my bones are on display;
people stare and gloat over me.
18 They divide my clothes among them
and cast lots for my garment.

The trust David has, which is also prophetically seen in Jesus, is only more evident as we read on. There is a plea for God to deliver, followed by a significant declaration of God’s faithful character—that he will respond to this cry for help.

19 But you, Lord, do not be far from me.
You are my strength; come quickly to help me.
20 Deliver me from the sword,
my precious life from the power of the dogs.
21 Rescue me from the mouth of the lions;
save me from the horns of the wild oxen.

22 I will declare your name to my people;
in the assembly I will praise you.
23 You who fear the Lord, praise him!
All you descendants of Jacob, honor him!
Revere him, all you descendants of Israel!
24 For he has not despised or scorned
the suffering of the afflicted one;
he has not hidden his face from him
but has listened to his cry for help.

Did you catch the last verse? David writes that God “has not despised or scorned the suffering of the afflicted one.” (22:24) Not only that, but God “has not hidden his face from him but has listened to his cry for help.”

God did not despise Jesus on the cross, in fact, He did not even hid his face. This directly and forcefully contradicts any notion that God turned His face away from Jesus during the crucifixion. David, inspired by the Holy Spirit, says that God has not hidden his face from Jesus at all.

Jesus’ death on a cross was not a demonstration of God’s rejecting those who call on Him. Rather, it is a demonstration of His faithfulness. The Father was faithful to Jesus in raising Him from the dead, vindicating and glorifying Jesus. God was faithful to humanity and the nation of Israel by fulfilling His promises to send a redeemer. He was faithful to His covenant with Abraham in blessing the entire world through Abraham’s seed.

Our God is faithful towards those that trust in Him. He does not turn away from us during our hardest moments, just as He did not turn away from His Son Jesus. When we feel there is no hope, He is our eternal hope.

Lord or Jesus? Metzger’s Comments on Jude 1:5

In Jude 1:5 of the English Standard Version (ESV), we read that Jesus delivered the Israelites out of Egypt:

Now I want to remind you, although you once fully knew it, that Jesus, who saved a people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe.

Other translations, including the KJV, NASB and NIV, instead read ‘Lord’ in place of ‘Jesus’ here.

Why the discrepancy?

This is not just a random decision to replace ‘Jesus’ with ‘Lord’, or vice versa. The translators are looking at the manuscript evidence and deciding what they believe the original reading most likely is. The critical editions of the Greek New Testament that many modern translations rely heavily on, the Nestle-Aland 26th and 27th editions, read ‘Lord’ in this verse. It was only in the recently released edition, the 28th edition, that the reading ‘Jesus’ was preferred.

The decisions of which readings to prefer in the critical editions are not made by one person, but rather by a committee of scholars. Dr. Bruce Metzger was one of several scholars who participated in the committee that chose ‘Lord’, and in his textual commentary he communicates the exact reason why it was preferred:

Despite the weighty attestation supporting Ἰησοῦς (A B 33 81 322 323 424c 665 1241 1739 1881 2298 2344 vg cop, bo eth Origen Cyril Jerome Bede; ὁ Ἰησοῦς 88 915), a majority of the Committee was of the opinion that the reading was difficult to the point of impossibility, and explained its origin in terms of transcriptional oversight (ΚΧ being taken for ΙΧ). It was also observed that nowhere else does the author employ Ἰησοῦς alone, but always Ἰησοῦς Χριστός. The unique collocation θεὸς Χριστός read by P72 (did the scribe intend to write θεοῦ χριστός, “God’s anointed one”?) is probably a scribal blunder; otherwise one would expect that Χριστός would be represented also in other witnesses. The great majority of witnesses read ὁ before κύριος, but on the strength of its absence from א Ψ and the tendency of scribes to add the article, it was thought best to enclose ὁ within square brackets. (Metzger 723)

After explaining the Committee’s rationale to prefer ‘Lord’ over ‘Jesus’, Metzger then follows with his own dissenting opinion:

[Critical principles seem to require the adoption of Ἰησοῦς, which admittedly is the best attested reading among Greek and versional witnesses (see above). Struck by the strange and unparalleled mention of Jesus in a statement about the redemption out of Egypt (yet compare Paul’s reference to Χριστός in 1 Cor 10:4), copyists would have substituted (ὁ) κύριος or ὁ θεός. (Metzger 724)

In Bruce Metzger’s dissent, he states that ‘Jesus’ is “the best attested reading among Greek and versional witnesses” and that “critical principles seem to require the adoption of Ἰησοῦς [Jesus].” In other words, a theologically unbiased decision based purely on the principles of textual criticism would prefer ‘Jesus’ here—not ‘Lord’.

The reason for it not being chosen was that a majority of the Committee felt “the reading was difficult to the point of impossibility.” They were convinced, it seems, of the extreme unlikelihood that Jude would have written that Jesus was alive and active within an Old Testament narrative. Perhaps they couldn’t stomach the idea that the earliest Christians believed Jesus existed prior to His physical human birth, something scripture itself attests to in John 1:1.

Fortunately, the reading ‘Jesus’ is now chosen in the Nestle’s critical text, even though Dr. Metzger is unfortunately no longer with us.

Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament; a Companion Volume to the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (2nd Ed.). N.p.: Hendrickson Pub, 2006. Print.

Co-Heirs with Christ

In Paul’s letter to the Roman church, while describing our deliverance through the Holy Spirit, we come across these verses regarding our heirship as children of God. I want to focus in specifically on verse seventeen, which contains parallels that emphasize our discipleship of Christ.

16 The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him so that we may also be glorified with Him. (Romans 8:16-17)

There are three parallel ideas here that are not as obvious in the English, but clearly stand out as I read the Greek. They all express the concept of sharing with Christ, of being fellow participators with Jesus. I’ll diagram the English translation here, so it is more evident, and include the Greek as well, where the parallels are more pronounced. The three bolded portions below in the English are each communicated with three individual words in the Greek, creating strong repetition.

and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and
fellow heirs with Christ, if indeed we
suffer with Him so that we may also be
glorified with Him. (Romans 8:16-17)

εἰ δὲ τέκνα, καὶ κληρονόμοι· κληρονόμοι μὲν θεοῦ,
συγκληρονόμοι δὲ Χριστοῦ, εἴπερ
συμπάσχομεν ἵνα καὶ
συνδοξασθῶμεν. (Romans 8:16-17)

If we have the Holy Spirit dwelling within us, then we are children of God, and consequently heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ Himself.

However, Paul puts conditions on this wonderful promise. Our being co-heirs with Christ is contingent upon our also being partners with Christ, not just in the good times, but in the hard times as well. We, as God’s children are co-heirs—if we suffer with Him. If we are co-sufferers, carrying the same cross He carried and being crucified as He was crucified (in a spiritual sense). Then, and only then, will we be glorified with Him. We must be walking in Jesus’ footsteps, and this includes enduring trials as we live with our eyes set on pleasing God.

For many Christians today, applying this teaching does not take an elaborate stretch of the imagination. Just recently, a Coptic church in Egypt was bombed, killing at least twenty-five Christians there. Those believers killed suffered with Christ. Those with dead relatives are suffering with Christ. In the west, we don’t face such stark persecution. But if we speak for truth, there is a good chance we will be mocked, especially in the public sphere, perhaps even in some churches. As Paul wrote to Timothy, “Indeed, all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will be persecuted.” (2 Timothy 3:12)

Here is the key. If we want to be co-heirs with Christ, inheriting the glorious promises God gives to His children, we must be ready and willing to suffer with Christ. Only these true disciples who are willing to fill up “what lacks in Christ’s afflictions” will be glorified with Christ. (Colossians 1:24) And if we are glorified with Christ, we will be seen as true heirs, true children of God.

This isn’t a burden we carry alone, the presence of God strengthens us. As we abide in Him, His strength through the Holy Spirit empowers us where we are weak. There is a great cloud of witnesses that have gone before us, who have shared in Christ’s sufferings. So let’s run the race with perseverance. We aren’t running alone, we are running with Christ.

Pistis Iesou: “Faith of Jesus” or “Faith in Jesus”

In the scholarly world, a debate has been raging for a while now regarding the proper way to translate the Greek phrase “πίστις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ” (pistis Iēsou Christou), meaning either the “faith of Jesus Christ” or “faith in Jesus Christ.”  This would apply to other variations where we have the word pistis (faith) followed by different combinations of the name/title of Jesus in the genitive case.

The reason for the debate revolves around the fact that both options are grammatically possible and significant theological positions are at stake.

In simple terms, one could correctly translate the genitive Iēsou here either as an objective genitive or as a subjective genitive.  The terms objective and subjective are simply labels we apply to the genitive, depending on how we believe it is being used. There is no magical magnifying glass we can pull out and peer through to discover a small marking that indicates what type of genitive it is.  These are interpretive labels applied to the genitive case in Greek.

Translated subjectively, we would read the phrase pistis Iēsou as the “faith of Jesus”, meaning that Jesus produces the faith (so he is not the recipient of our faith in this scenario).  Alternatively, to translate it objectively would yield “faith in Jesus,” meaning Jesus is the recipient of our faith.  Both options are within the range of possible meaning grammatically.

Consequently, scholars can argue all day long in sophisticated ways and at the end of the day both sides still hold the same old positions stronger than ever. I’m simplifying, but that is the core of the issue.

The primary verses affected by this debate are mostly in Paul’s letters and would include Rom. 3:22, Rom. 3:26, Gal. 2:16; Gal. 2:20, Gal. 3:22, Eph. 3:12, and Phil. 3:9. Revelations 14:12 also applies, although it is not as commonly debated.

Let’s take a look at a couple examples and decide if a subjective or objective genitive would make more sense based on the context.

21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— 22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction: 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. (Romans 3:21-25 ESV)

In verse 22, we read that the righteousness of God has been revealed through pisteōs Iēsou Christou towards all those believing. Following most modern translations, the righteousness of God is through “faith in Jesus” and is for those believing. If understood this way, the concept of belief in Jesus is repeated twice unnecessarily. Paul would be saying that it’s revealed through believing in Jesus for those believing in Jesus, making it a bit of awkward phrasing.

It also raises an interesting theological dilemma. Is the righteousness of God revealed through our faith?  Or is it through the faith of Jesus, Jesus’ faithfulness through death on a cross? I think most would agree that humanity didn’t reveal God’s faithfulness, unless you are referring specifically to God in human flesh, Jesus Christ.  God revealed his righteousness through the person Jesus Christ.  This was specifically through His faithful obedience and perseverance.

Here’s another example to analyze from Galatians:

“We know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, so we also have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified.” (Galatians 2:16)

This is similar to the previous example from Romans, but is even clearer in my opinion.  The bold portions could also be translated as a subjective genitive, the “faith/faithfulness of Jesus.”  Translated this way, Paul would be saying that we are justified by Christ’s death (the implied reference of the “faith of Christ”) and not by ritual observance of the Mosaic Law. Because we have been justified by Jesus’ sacrificial death, we have put our trust in Christ Jesus, so that we are justified by Jesus’ death and not by works of the Mosaic Law.  Paul would not be denying the need to put our trust in Jesus, but rather puts greater focus on Jesus’ faithfulness as the paschal lamb.

If we took both instances in Galatians 2:16 as objective genitives, it would follow Protestant tradition nicely, but would make Paul repeat himself three times.  Paul essentially would be writing that we are justified by believing in Jesus, so we believe in Jesus, in order that we be justified by believing in Jesus. Suffice to say, it lacks the theological depth the alternative interpretation communicates so nicely.

Let’s move on to a non-Pauline example, one I find interesting and is probably less discussed.

Here is a call for the endurance of the saints, those who keep the commandments of God and their faith in Jesus. (Revelations 14:12 ESV)

As I’ve discussed, “faith in Jesus” is a grammatically possible translation, but so is “faith of Jesus” or “Jesus’ faith.”  So we could instead read this verse as:

Here is a call for the endurance of the saints, those who keeping the commandments of God and the faithfulness of Jesus.

This would change the definition of the saints to those who keep the commands of God and also the faithful perseverance of Jesus.  The “faithfulness of Jesus” puts emphasis on the endurance of faith displayed throughout Jesus’ entire life. The saints are those who have not only believe in Jesus (which is expressed elsewhere in scripture), but those who live by the same obedient faith Jesus lived by.

Although one can’t grammatically prove the correctness of one translation over the other, understanding the alternate possibilities provide a new (or quite old) perspective that could be easily overlooked otherwise.

One word of caution, not every instance where we read about our faith in Jesus is applicable to this discussion. For example, Paul writes in Ephesians 1:15, “I have heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus.”  The “Lord Jesus” here is in the dative and is preceded by the preposition “in” (en) in the Greek (unlike the examples discussed previously in this post). So any discussion of objective versus subjective genitives does not apply in this verse. There are a number of other verses like this. I would encourage you to use an interlinear or bible program accurately determine what grammatical construction is being used in the Greek.

Unless Found Perfect: A Parallel Passage in the Didache and Epistle of Barnabas

There is a strong parallel phrase between the Didache (50-70 AD) and the Epistle of Barnabas (90-131 AD), two very early Christian writings found in the modern collection known as the Apostolic Fathers.

In anticipation of the last days and the return of Jesus, the Didache emphasizes the necessity of being found perfect or complete in the last days, otherwise our past faith will “be of no use.”

Watch over your life: do not let your lamps go out, and do not be unprepared, but be ready, for you do not know the hour when our Lord is coming. Gather together frequently, seeking the things that benefit your souls, for all the time you have believed will be of no use to you if you are not found perfect in the last time. (Didache 16. 1,2; Holmes, 3rd Ed.)

In the 1912 Loeb edition, Kirsopp Lake translates the last passage as, “for the whole time of your faith shall not profit you except ye be found perfect at the last time.”

Similar language is used in the Epistle of Barnabas when talking of the last days:

Consequently, let us be on guard in the last days, for the whole time of our faith will do us no good unless now, in the age of lawlessness, we also resist, as befits God’s children, the coming stumbling blocks, lest the black one find an opportunity to sneak in. (Barnabas 4. 9b; Holmes, 3rd Ed.)

Both are directly speaking of the importance of continued spiritual soberness in the last days.  The Greek has almost identical wording in both passages where it says “for the whole time of your/our faith will do you/us no good unless [now] in the last/lawless time […].”

Didache:    οὐ       γὰρ ὠφελήσει ὑμᾶς ὁ πᾶς χρόνος τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν, ἐὰν μὴ        ἐν τῷ ἐσχάτῳ καιρῷ […]
Barnabas: οὐδὲν γὰρ ὠφελήσει ἡμᾶς ὁ πᾶς χρόνος τῆς πίστεως ἡμῶν, ἐὰν μὴ νῦν ἐν τῷ ἀνόμῳ καιρῷ […]

There is no doubt that there either was a common source that both quoted from, or Barnabas borrowed here from the Didache. Regardless, the teaching that we need to be found faithful at the end was a common teaching present among the earliest believers. The eternal state of a Christian was not strictly viewed only as a simple profession of past faith, but in terms of continued faithfulness and endurance up until the end of our life.

Eventually I may take the time and effort to complete a comprehensive survey of this teaching in the earliest non-canonical Christian writings, but until then this is just one morsel of early Christian thought to chew on.

Trusting Our Souls to God by Doing Good (1 Peter 4:19)

The first epistle of the Apostle Peter was written to encourage the church, as God’s chosen people, to persevere through the trials they are presently undergoing as they wait for Jesus’ return. Peter admonishes them to be holy, to be set apart from the surrounding world through their righteous conduct. Even if they are mistreated, they are to continue to walk with God in obedience, following in Jesus’ example. Jesus Christ Himself patiently endured unjust treatment, even to His death, while continuing to walk in obedience to God the Father.  As Peter writes in 1 Peter 3:18, “For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God.”  Just as Jesus, the one without sin, suffered unjustly for the unrighteous, so we too must be willing to suffer while doing good (see 1 Pet. 3:17).

This is precisely the theme that we find in chapter 4 of 1 Peter. When faced with a “fiery ordeal,” we ought to react not with confusion, but with rejoicing. We are to gladly go through whatever suffering is set before us, following Jesus’ example. “But to the degree that you share the sufferings of Christ, keep on rejoicing, so that also at the revelation of His glory you may rejoice with exultation.” (1 Peter 4:13). Just as Christ trusted the Father unto death, so we too should trust God during our trials. We should share in Jesus’ sufferings. And when the full glory of Jesus is revealed upon his earthly return, we too will be revealed in glory, as true children of God. For those that are reviled for the name of Christ are blessed, as Peter says. (v. 14) And the blessed will inherit the kingdom of God.

Then we come to 1 Peter 4:17-19, which reads:

17 For it is time for judgment to begin with the household of God; and if it begins with us first, what will be the outcome for those who do not obey the gospel of God? 18 And if it is with difficulty that the righteous is saved, what will become of the godless man and the sinner? 19 Therefore, those also who suffer according to the will of God shall entrust their souls to a faithful Creator in doing what is right.

Peter expresses that we should not be ashamed to suffer for Christ, and this thought then leads into verse 17. We should not be ashamed, “for” judgement is at hand.  Judgement will begin with the household of God, the Christians. This judgement will be difficult for those who do good, how much more so for those who do evil? Peter is stressing the severity of the judgement.

This thought leads directly into verse 19, “Therefore, those also who suffer according to the will of God shall entrust their souls to a faithful Creator in doing what is right.” The term “therefore” here links back to the previous statements. Therefore, since it is with great difficulty the righteous is saved, those who are suffering should trust their souls to God “in doing what is right.”

Now, what does the phrase “in doing what is right” mean? How is it related to the rest of the sentence. The ESV and NIV (among others) have translated this verse in such as way that the “doing what is right” is disassociated with the concept of “entrusting their souls to a faithful Creator.” Below, I’ve listed 1 Peter 4:19 from the NASB, ESV, and NIV.  See if you can catch the different nuances in meaning.

NASB: Therefore, those also who suffer according to the will of God shall entrust their souls to a faithful Creator in doing what is right.

ESV: Therefore let those who suffer according to God’s will entrust their souls to a faithful Creator while doing good.

NIV: So then, those who suffer according to God’s will should commit themselves to their faithful Creator and continue to do good.

The portion of the quotations above in bold reads in the Greek as “ἐν ἀγαθοποιΐᾳ,” literally “in good doing.” Each of these translations have translated the small preposition “ἐν” (en) here differently. While the NASB follows a more literal word-to-word translation of using the rough equivalent “in,” the ESV instead uses “while.”  The NIV replaces the preposition with the conjunction “and.”

The question is, what is the relationship between entrusting and doing good? The NIV and ESV seem to lessen the logical link between the command to “entrust their souls” to God and the instruction to be “doing good.” These translations both essentially communicate to the reader that we are to trust our souls to God, and oh, by the way, you should also continue to do good. Translated this way, these two acts are effectively separate occurrences and do not have any direct affect on each other.

Based on the context, however, it is clear that Peter here is using the preposition “ἐν” (en) to communicate the means by which we entrust our souls to God. There are quite a number of uses for “ἐν” depending on the context, which can cause some confusion. One of the common and accepted uses for “ἐν” is to communicate means or instrumentality (see LSJ Greek-English Lexicon entry here).  When used in this way, one could translated “ἐν” as “by” or “with.”

For example, in 1 Peter 1:5 we read about Christians “who are protected by the power of God.”  “By” here is the preposition “ἐν” we’ve been discussing. This is a clear example of the translators using “by” to communicate the means by which protection occurs.  Another example is found in 1 Peter 1:22 in the NIV, “You have purified yourselves by obeying the truth.” Once again, “by” here is used to translate “ἐν.”  Other examples within this same epistle would include 1 Peter 1:6 and 1 Peter 1:22. All this to say the “ἐν” is often used to communicate the means by which something is accomplished.

This usage of “ἐν” to show means also applies in 1 Peter 4:19. Peter is not trying to disassociate entrusting our souls to God from the act of doing good.  Rather, he is being intentional by communicating the means by which we entrust our souls to God.  We entrust our souls to our Creator specifically by doing good.

Consequently, in light of the common practice of translating “ἐν” as “by” to communicate means or instrumentality, we could fairly translate the verse as follows:

Therefore, those also who suffer according to the will of God shall entrust their souls to a faithful Creator by doing good.

This is exactly in keeping with the context. This is the path of Christ. Jesus suffered according to the will of God. During this suffering, He did not retaliate or look to human deliverance. No, He entrusted Himself to the Father by being obedient, by doing good. Jesus entrusted his life (another way to translate soul here) to the Father by being obedient to death on the cross. He humbly submitted Himself to the will of the Father, willingly suffering, trusting that God the Father would raise Him from the dead, glorifying Him and seating Him at His right hand in the heavens.

That is what Peter is saying. He, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit, is instructing those believers who were being persecuted for their faith to follow in Jesus’ footsteps. How are they to imitate Christ? They are to imitate Christ by entrusting their souls to God, even as they undergo tribulations. And how do they entrust themselves to God? It is simple, by doing good.

Such an attitude says, “God, you have my life in your hands. I will do good and trust that you will eternally vindicate any unjustness I receive here on earth as I suffer according to your will.” This is the godly attitude we need as our world continues follow the seductive siren call of sin, persecuting those who serve Jesus.

A Biblical Understanding of Tithing (Part 3: Application)

In my first and second posts, I outlined the biblical instructions on tithing and giving.  Now that we have a solid scriptural foundation upon which to build, let’s think about what this means for Christians and the church today.  There are no easy answers. Even if we understand the biblical concepts, the application of these principles requires guidance by the Holy Spirit and discernment in each unique situation.

Let’s Give Generously in Freedom

The Bible is clear on the what Christian giving in general should look like. We are to give as we have purposed in our heart, not according to some external command.  There are no specific mandates on percentages or amounts. Even though the tithe is often used as a basis for saying congregants should give ten percent to the church, that is misapplying a Mosaic Law system in a completely unrelated context. Both the believer that feels compelled to donate ten percent and the believer that gives a different amount are free to do so.  We have freedom to give as we feel led by the Spirit. That freedom, however, should not be an excuse to be uncharitable with our finances.  Rather, true Spirit-led giving is both generous and wise.

Let’s Drop the Term “Tithing”

There is certainly continuity between the Old Testament and the New Testament. The sacrificial system, appointed times of the Lord, and so forth all are shadows the lead us to the bright reality in Jesus Christ. So we need to have a biblical understanding that brings from both the old and new.

That said, using the term “tithing” when talking about donations to the church just causes confusion. Pastors begin to misuse verses (see Malachi 3:8) in an effort to increase giving. Different scriptures are thrown together willy-nilly without any consideration to a holistic, accurate understanding of the scripture. Tithing was clearly a mandated system with specific application to the nation of Israel. Only those under the Mosaic Law were bound by its requirements. For Christians, we are not under the Mosaic Law, and consequently can only apply the general concepts as we walk by the Spirit.  Any more than that, and we are missing the big picture. As Jesus said to the Pharisees and scribes, “you tithe mint and dill and cummin, and have neglected the weightier provisions of the law: justice and mercy and faithfulness.” (Matthew 23:23)

Let’s Redistribute Church Offerings Back to Members in Need

The early church in Acts left a undeniable example for us. Collections were taken up by the apostles, only to be redistributed back to those in the church who needed help. This would have included widows who did not have family members to support them. If a need was found, the money collected was there to provide for it.

When we look at any given church budget, does a significant portion go towards helping its members who are struggling financially? As long a church owns a building and has some level of staff, there will be overhead costs that cannot be avoided. But does a significant portion of the additional surplus go into a fund that is then used to support the needy? Or are funds being used primarily for new buildings, more (unnecessary) staff, better equipment, and so forth.  We need to take a good look at where money is being spent and discern if it honors God and is in accordance with scripture.

Of course, if money is being redistributed to church members in need, there is a practical discernment that needs to be applied by elders and deacons to ensure people aren’t taking advantage of the system. Those who can work should work (1 Timothy 5:8) to ensure that those who are the most vulnerable are cared for.

Implications for Salaried Church Staff

This is a complicated subject, so I’ll just share some high-level thoughts.

When we look at Paul’s example, he made an effort to not financially burden those he was ministering to. However, when we look across the large majority of churches in America, how many pastors have a part-time job, let alone a full-time position outside the ministry? They are out there, but it’s not the norm.

Instead, what we see are churches with significant staffing costs. Not only is there a lead teaching pastor, there may be a worship pastor, operations pastor, youth pastor, children’s pastor, men’s pastor, women’s pastor, and the list goes on. This doesn’t count everyone who works behind the scenes. These large churches have become corporate behemoths, burning through cash quickly. The entire modern church model needs a revamp, but that’s for a different discussion.

This is the exact opposite of the early church we see in scripture. Church leaders were normal guys with normal jobs. Seminaries did not exist at this point, so their qualification rested on their spiritual maturity. Traveling evangelists were typically supported by churches or patrons, but this was a practical accommodation because of their constant travel.

It’s safe to say we as the American church have a lot to learn from Paul. In too many instances, ministries have become a financial burden on the people, greatly hindering the gospel.  A church model where the leaders have normal jobs in addition to their ministry positions would create a financially-resilient church with the cash-flow to provide for those who need it the most.

The Fulfillment of Tithing is Love

In everything we do, we are to walk in love and by the Holy Spirit.  That is the key.

The tithing commandments and all the New Testament instructions on giving find their fulfillment in godly love.  It’s not about rules and regulations, but about meeting needs wherever we see them. If we live this way, we’ll truly be disciples of Jesus Christ.

A Biblical Understanding of Tithing (Part 2: New Testament)

In the first post on tithing in the Mosaic Law, I outlined specifically how the tithe was to be used by the Israelites. The tithe, always food, was both eaten in celebration for God’s provision and also used to provide for those who were in need. Only a tenth of the tithe was specifically taken in the third and sixth year for those Levites ministering within the temple itself.  As we saw in Malachi 3, when the Israelites neglected to follow these commands and did not provide for those in need, God placed the land under a curse.

With the Old Testament tithing regulations alone, we already know the heart of God in giving is focused on providing for those who are truly in need.  God cares for the weak, the humble, and the down-trodden. This becomes even more clear as we begin to study what Jesus and the Apostles taught in the New Testament.

Christians Aren’t Bound by Tithing Laws

There actually is very little said about tithing in the New Testament.  This is mostly because tithing is something that was specifically for the Jews who were under the Mosaic Law. Once the temple was destroyed by the Romans in AD 70, it would be impossible even for practicing Jews to fully observe the tithing commands.

When the question of whether the Gentile believers needed to submit to the Mosaic Law through circumcision, the church leaders were clear that they were not under the Mosaic Law.  Instead, they were only told “to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood.” (Acts 15:20) Of course, we are still under the Law of Christ (which is different than the Mosaic Law), since obedience to God in regards to good and evil existed since the beginning of time.

So instead of focusing on tithing, we’ll have to study the heart of the matter.  We’ll look at financial giving in the New Testament and apply this to our understanding of modern “tithing.”

Jesus Emphasized Giving to the Needy

One could easily write a book about Jesus and giving, since generosity was a major theme of His teaching. We’ll touch on a couple key verses here, but they consistently teach us to care for those in need.

During the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus directs us to not hesitate to give when someone asks us for something.  He told his disciples, “Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from him who wants to borrow from you.” (Matthew 5:42)  This applies not only to our friends, but even our enemies.  We are not to show partiality.

Later Jesus taught in parables, explaining the Day of Judgement when all the nations are gathered before Him.  Those who are welcomed into the kingdom are those who cared for the needy.

34 “Then the King will say to those on His right, ‘Come, you who are blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 35 For I was hungry, and you gave Me something to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave Me something to drink; I was a stranger, and you invited Me in; 36 naked, and you clothed Me; I was sick, and you visited Me; I was in prison, and you came to Me.’ (Matthew 25:34)

I could go on, but Jesus’ teachings are clear and consistent. Those who are obedient to Jesus are generous with their possessions towards those in need. And when we give, we are not to “sound a trumpet” before us, so our charity is noticed by others. Rather, we are to give in secret and God will reward us in eternity. (Matthew 6:4) There is a reason why Jesus told the rich young ruler, “If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow Me.” (Matthew 19:21) Only those who are willing to put the needs of others above their own are worthy of the kingdom of God.  This is key to understanding God’s intention to giving.

Practices in Early Church

After Jesus ascended and the Holy Spirit fell upon the disciples, the early believers lived out Jesus’ teachings within the Christian community almost immediately.  Luke tells us in Acts 2:44-45 that “all those who had believed were together and had all things in common;  they began selling their property and possessions and were sharing them with all, as anyone might have need.”  They were not only supporting one another financially, but sharing life with one another.

As time went on, this attitude of sharing only continued within the fledgling church in Jerusalem.

32 And the congregation of those who believed were of one heart and soul; and not one of them claimed that anything belonging to him was his own, but all things were common property to them. 33 And with great power the apostles were giving testimony to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and abundant grace was upon them all. 34 For there was not a needy person among them, for all who were owners of land or houses would sell them and bring the proceeds of the sales 35 and lay them at the apostles’ feet, and they would be distributed to each as any had need. (Acts 4:32-35)

Notice what happens after the financial proceeds were given to the apostles. It did not go to acquiring land for a church building or to the leader’s salaries. No, it was distributed back to the believers “as any had need” (v. 35). This was not a mandatory practice, but was done freely without compulsion.  As Peter told Ananias when he brought only a portion of his proceeds, “While it remained unsold, did it not remain your own? And after it was sold, was it not under your control?” (Acts 5:4)  Whenever someone did freely give to the church, the apostles redistributed back out to the church members.

Contributions Towards the Jerusalem Famine

In addition to the mutual support occurring within the local church, more extreme circumstances within the larger geographic area required special care.  Through the Holy Spirit, the believers learned that a severe famine would soon arise.  This required additional financial contributions to be taken across all of the Christian communities to support those most adversely affected.

27 Now at this time some prophets came down from Jerusalem to Antioch. 28 One of them named Agabus stood up and began to indicate by the Spirit that there would certainly be a great famine all over the world. And this took place in the reign of Claudius. 29 And in the proportion that any of the disciples had means, each of them determined to send a contribution for the relief of the brethren living in Judea. 30 And this they did, sending it in charge of Barnabas and Saul to the elders. (Acts 11:27-30)

In 1 Corinthians, we read the specific instructions Paul gave to the Corinthian church in regards to this specific collection.

Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I directed the churches of Galatia, so do you also. On the first day of every week each one of you is to put aside and save, as he may prosper, so that no collections be made when I come. When I arrive, whomever you may approve, I will send them with letters to carry your gift to Jerusalem; and if it is fitting for me to go also, they will go with me. (1 Corinthians 16:1-4)

Addressing practical concerns, Paul instructed the Corinthians to put aside a portion money every week, as they were willing and able. Essentially, Paul was encouraging them to start a savings plan, in order that the contribution would already be together upon his arrival. This monetary gift would then be sent to the Jerusalem church where the famine hit the hardest.

In Paul’s second letter to the same Corinthian church, he speaks of the generosity of the churches elsewhere towards their fellow believers. They gave “of their own accord,” meaning they gave exactly as each personally decided, regardless of the amount.

For I testify that according to their ability, and beyond their ability, they gave of their own accord, begging us with much urging for the favor of participation in the support of the saints (2 Corinthians 8:3-4)

Clearly, we see a biblical example being set by the early church. Financial giving was done specifically in response to a known need among the church.  Furthermore, any giving that was done was not mandated by the apostles, but was rather done freely as each felt led.  As Paul writes in 2 Corinthians 9:7, “Each one must do just as he has purposed in his heart, not grudgingly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver.”  And that’s exactly what we see in scripture.  The early church gave cheerfully out of their abundance to support the needs of their brothers and sisters, so that “He who gathered much did not have too much, and he who gathered little had no lack.” (2 Corinthians 8:15)

Paul’s Pastoral Example

The closest example we have from scripture that reflects the current practice of giving to support church leaders can be seen through Paul’s ministry. Paul, like some of the other apostles, traveled from city to city throughout the Roman empire preaching the gospel.

This itinerant lifestyle made it more difficult to earn a living for most evangelists.  For this reason, Paul is clear that those who work for the gospel should be allowed to receive compensation so they could continue their work.  He appeals to Jesus as the authority for his instruction, saying “the Lord has commanded that those who preach the gospel should receive their living from the gospel.” (1 Corinthians 9:14).

Despite having this right to be supported by the church, Paul said “we did not use this right. On the contrary, we put up with anything rather than hinder the gospel of Christ.” (1 Cor. 9:12) He was able to do this, since he could support himself through his tent-making business (Acts 18:3), allowing him to be financially independent. Paul again emphasizes his decision to not receive compensation from the Corinthian church several sentences later in verse 15.

15 But I have not used any of these rights. And I am not writing this in the hope that you will do such things for me, for I would rather die than allow anyone to deprive me of this boast. 16 For when I preach the gospel, I cannot boast, since I am compelled to preach. Woe to me if I do not preach the gospel! 17 If I preach voluntarily, I have a reward; if not voluntarily, I am simply discharging the trust committed to me.18 What then is my reward? Just this: that in preaching the gospel I may offer it free of charge, and so not make full use of my rights as a preacher of the gospel. (1 Cor. 9:15–18)

Although Paul did not take money from those he directly ministered too, we do know that at one point he received some support from the church in Philippi. (Phil 4:15)  We also find this mentioned by Paul in 2 Corinthians.

And when I was with you and needed something, I was not a burden to anyone, for the brothers who came from Macedonia supplied what I needed. I have kept myself from being a burden to you in any way, and will continue to do so. (2 Corinthians 11:9)

What can we take away from this?  1) The Lord allows those who are working for the gospel to receive a living from their work, especially in a culture where itinerant travel hindered any ability to hold down a job. 2) Despite having this right, Paul wanted to ensure he was not hindering the gospel by accepting compensation.  He sets an example by working hard as a tent-maker to support his own needs. 3) Even when he did receive some funding, this was not from those he was directly ministering to. By his own admission, Paul “worked night and day in order not to be a burden to anyone” while preaching the gospel of God. (1 Thessalonians 2:9)

Summary of Biblical Teachings on Tithing and Financial Giving

As we covered in part 1, the heart of the Mosaic Law tithing commandments focused on giving thanks to God for his provision, and just as importantly, providing food for those in need. Even the tenth of the tithe brought to the temple was to provide food for those ministering there. We saw God’s love for the down-trodden through these commands and the consequence of ignoring it was severe.  In Malachi, God rebuked the Israelite’s for neglecting the Mosaic tithing system. They would be under a curse until they would obediently begin to provide food for their needy widows, orphans, foreigners, and Levites. Overall, the tithing system was designed specifically for the Israelite nation, and only the heart of caring for others can be applied within our modern churches.

The importance of providing for the needy, seen in the Old Testament, is even more pronounced in the New Testament. Jesus repeatedly taught to give generously, just as God has provided for us. The early church shared everything in common, even selling property and redistributing the proceeds back out to those who needed it the most. When the famine arose, a voluntary collection was taken from churches across the Roman empire and many generously contributed. It was important to Paul that financial resources be used wisely and only as necessary. Consequently, throughout his own evangelistic ministry, Paul went out of his way to not receive support from those he was ministering to despite having the right to do so. He sets a high standard to anyone wishing to go into ministry full-time.

Now that we know what the scripture teaches in regards to tithing and giving in general, what does this really mean for us? How do we apply this within our Christian communities?  These are more difficult questions, some of which don’t have clear cut answers. I’ll reflect on this in part 3, and share my thoughts now that the foundation of scripture has been established.