Tag Archives: Holy Spirit

Greek Idiom: God Does Not “Receive the Face” of Man

In Galatians 2:6, Paul makes an aside regarding those of high reputation in the Jerusalem church. He writes, “What they were makes no difference to me; God shows no partiality.”

In the Greek, this phrase “God shows no partiality” can be more literally translated, “God does not receive the face of man.” This was a common Greek idiom, meaning that God does not show favoritism or partiality.

This idiom is used several times throughout the New Testament.

In Acts 10:34, when Peter sees that the Holy Spirit was given to Cornelius’ gentile household and neighbors, he declares that, “I most certainly understand now that God is not one to show partiality, but in every nation the man who fears Him and does what is right is welcome to Him.”

Here in Acts, the phrase “one to show partiality” is translated from a single Greek noun literally meaning “accepter-of-a-face” (prosópolémptés, προσωπολήπτης).

Another similar noun meaning partiality or favoritism, προσωποληψία (prosópolémpsia), is used four times in the New Testament. Three of the occurrences emphasis God’s impartiality (see Romans 2:11, Ephesians 6:9, and Colossians 3:25), while the final occurrence in James 2:1 states that “believers in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ must not show favoritism.” (NIV)

This is an essential part of the gospel. God’s favor does not rest just on a select portion of humanity, because God does not show favoritism. It’s not just the Jews who receive God’s favor, nor the males, nor the rich. Jesus is drawing all of humanity to himself, although many will unfortunately reject God’s mercy and remain unrepentant.

Peter declares this truth in Acts 2:17-21, quoting the prophet Joel:

‘In the last days, God says,
I will pour out my Spirit on all people.
Your sons and daughters will prophesy,
your young men will see visions,
your old men will dream dreams.
Even on my servants, both men and women,
I will pour out my Spirit in those days,
and they will prophesy.
I will show wonders in the heavens above
and signs on the earth below,
blood and fire and billows of smoke.
The sun will be turned to darkness
and the moon to blood
before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord.
And everyone who calls
on the name of the Lord will be saved.’

God’s spirit has been poured out on all His people. God’s people include both Jews and Gentiles, men and women, young and old. Even the lowest on the social ladder during this time—female slaves—could receive God’s Spirit.

Ever since that day on Pentecost, when a small group of Jesus followers declared the wonders of God in other languages, we have been living in the last days. The Holy Spirit is freely available to those who repent of sin and put their trust in God. It doesn’t matter who you are in the eyes of the world.

God does not show partiality, and that’s good news.

Holy Spirit in the Old Testament: Upon or Within People?

I have heard it often taught that the Holy Spirit only came “upon” people in the Old Testament. This supposedly changed in the New Testament, specifically after the Holy Spirit was given on Pentecost, with the Holy Spirit now coming into and dwelling within us. Before the Spirit was upon, and now the Spirit dwells within.

Unfortunately, this teaching is a theological old wives tale. Over time, it’s been repeated over and over, from preacher to preacher, without anyone actually verifying its accuracy.

However, when we look at scripture, it becomes clear that this distinction has no basis in fact. Although the Holy Spirit wasn’t universally given to the people of God in the Old Testament, the Holy Spirit did dwell within many godly individuals, just as the Holy Spirit dwells within us as Christians.

The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament
It’s understandable that many believe that the Holy Spirit only came upon (or rested on) saints in the Old Testament. If you were to do a survey of all the verses that mention the Holy Spirit, you would find that many verses do use this language to describe the giving of the Holy Spirit. (For a few examples, see Numbers 11:25; Judges 3:10; 1 Samuel 16:13)

Yet, there are also instances when scripture describes the Holy Spirit filling people. Several examples of this can be found in Exodus, where God fills individuals with the Holy Spirit in order to construct the tabernacle:

Now the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “See, I have called by name Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. I have filled him with the Spirit of God in wisdom, in understanding, in knowledge, and in all kinds of craftsmanship, to make artistic designs for work in gold, in silver, and in bronze, and in the cutting of stones for settings, and in the carving of wood, that he may work in all kinds of craftsmanship. (Exodus 31:3)

Joshua, commissioned by the Moses to lead the Israelites, was also filled with the Holy Spirit when Moses laid his hands on him:

Now Joshua the son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid his hands on him; and the sons of Israel listened to him and did as the Lord had commanded Moses. (Deut. 34:9)

The Apostle Peter, referring to the Old Testament prophets, specifically states that the Holy Spirit was within them:

As to this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you made careful searches and inquiries, seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow. (1 Peter 1:10-11)

Although the Old Testament does indeed describe the Holy Spirit coming on or upon individuals, this is just a different way of describing the Holy Spirit entering or filling a person. In 2 Chronicles 24:20, we read that “the Spirit of God came on Zechariah.” However, 1 Peter 1:11 indicates that the Holy Spirit was within the prophets, which would include Zechariah. So while the Old Testament commonly (although not exclusively) describes the Spirit coming upon, the New Testament clarifies that this meant the Spirit was also within them. It’s simply two different ways to describe the same phenomenon.

The Holy Spirit in the New Testament
Most everyone agrees that the Holy Spirit dwells in us as Christians. Paul makes this clear in Romans 8:9, writing that for true Christians, “the Spirit of God dwells in you.” When the Holy Spirit was poured out on Pentecost, all the believers were “filled with the Holy Spirit.” (Acts 2:4) Again, language describing an indwelling of God’s Spirit. (Other examples include Acts 4:8, 31; 9:17; 2 Timothy 1:14)

Interestingly, there are also New Testament examples where the Holy Spirit is described as coming “upon” people!

We read the following in Luke’s account of Jesus’ baptism:

Now when all the people were baptized, Jesus was also baptized, and while He was praying, heaven was opened, and the Holy Spirit descended upon Him in bodily form like a dove, and a voice came out of heaven, “You are My beloved Son, in You I am well-pleased.” (Luke 3:21-22)

The Greek word here for “upon” could also be translated as “on” (epi, ἐπί). The ancient translators of the Greek Old Testament (Septuagint), used this same word (epi) for the Hebrew equivalent of “upon” (al, עַל) when the Spirit came upon various persons.

Jesus, foretelling the gift of the Holy Spirit, told His disciples that the Holy Spirit would come “upon” (epi, ἐπί) them:

“It is not for you to know times or epochs which the Father has fixed by His own authority; but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.” (Acts 1:7b-8)

Still more examples would include Acts 10:44 and Acts 19:6, both of which use “upon” when describing the giving of the Holy Spirit.

Of course, this does not mean that the Holy Spirit is only “upon” us now in the New Covenant. As I’ve shown, the Bible uses different terminology to describe the same interaction between the Holy Spirit and humans. When the Holy Spirit came upon the disciples, it also filled them and dwelled within them. All are simply different ways of describing the same event.

Although the Holy Spirit was more selectively given in the Old Testament, the manner in which it was given does not differ at all from the New Testament. The Holy Spirit filled individuals both before and after Christ. The difference in terms is simply alternate expressions used when describing the same functional event.

Setting Aside the Holy Spirit (Part 2)

This is second of a two-part post on the most serious warning we find in scripture addressed to believers, the warning to not reject the leading of the Holy Spirit in our lives. Part 1 addresses the warning given by Paul in 1 Thessalonians 4 to not live in sexual immorality. Paul says that Christians must not “set aside” the Holy Spirit through living in sin. Here in Part 2, we’ll do a more detailed comparison between the Old and New Covenant, between the covenant people according to the flesh in the Old Testament, and the covenant people of God according to faith in the New Testament. We’ll see how those who set aside the Mosaic Law incurred the penalty of physical death. In the New Covenant, those elect who set aside the Holy Spirit through continued sin incur an even greater punishment, spiritual death.

Parallel Between the Old and New Covenants

Scripture is consistent in regards to the consequence for rejecting or setting aside God’s instructions, whether through the Mosaic Law for the Israelites or the Holy Spirit for the church. This consistency between the Old and New Testaments is reinforced by what we find expressed in the epistle to the Hebrews. The Greek word Paul used in 1 Thessalonians 4:8 for “rejects” is used again in Hebrews 10:28 when it reads “set aside.”

26 For if we go on sinning willfully after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, 27 but a terrifying expectation of judgment and the fury of a fire which will consume the adversaries. 28 Anyone who has set aside the Law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 29 How much severer punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled under foot the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has insulted the Spirit of grace? 30 For we know Him who said, “Vengeance is Mine, I will repay.” And again, “The Lord will judge His people.” 31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God. (Hebrews 10:26-31)

In the Old Covenant, the consequence for setting aside the Law of Moses was death, assuming you had the legal minimum of two or three witnesses. (Deut. 17:2-6) Of course, this practice wasn’t for Gentiles who did not know the Law. It was specifically for the Israelites who were under the Law, meaning they were members of the chosen people of God. It was for those Israelites who God had saved from slavery. After saving them, they willfully submitted to God’s Law as revealed at Mount Sinai.

Then he [Moses] took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, “All that the Lord has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient!” So Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words.” (Exodus 24:7-8)

By submitting to God’s covenant and the Law, they were now set apart as the people of God. To turn their back on the Law through unrepentant rebellion was to turn their back on the covenant, to say they no longer wanted to abide by the covenant. And the consequence of this willful disobedience was death.

Just as verse 28 applies specifically to the people of God under the Old Covenant, so the parallel that follows in verse 29 applies also to the people of God in the New Covenant. Only now it is not those Israelites under the Law of Moses who are the chosen people, but rather all those who have repented and put their faith in Jesus Christ. Those who repent and believe in Jesus are grafted into the people of God.  They receive the Holy Spirit, which is the Law of Christ written on their hearts and minds. As a chosen and called people, these believers are those who have willingly submitted themselves to the terms of the covenant, established by Jesus’ shed blood on the cross. They recognize that God has called them out of wickedness into sanctification, to be a people set apart for God’s use.

Clearly, when the covenant people reject God through willful sin there are serious consequences. Under the Law of Moses, the rebellious were put to death. Under the New Covenant, those who continue to deliberately sin against God without remorse face even more severe punishment. This is because something even greater than the Law of Moses has been given. God Himself living within His people in the person of the Holy Spirit, leading and guiding them into holiness.


What is this severer punishment? We know that it is worse than physical death. The Old Covenant dealt primarily with physical defilement. Uncleanness was primarily regarding the physical rather than the spiritual. (Hebrews 9:13-14) In the New Covenant, uncleanness is viewed in terms of the spiritual reality. And just as there were primarily physical consequences under the Law, the consequences in Jesus are conversely spiritual in nature. So Paul here is warning not of physical death, but spiritual death apart from God for all eternity. This is consistent with Jesus’ saying, “But I will warn you whom to fear: fear the One who, after He has killed, has authority to cast into hell; yes, I tell you, fear Him!” (Luke 12:5). These warning occur repeatedly in the gospels, in Matthew Jesus again warns his disciples, “If your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.” (Matthew 5:29). In other words, from Jesus’ perspective, we should be far more concerned about spiritual death than physical death. This would suggest the severer punishment talked about in Hebrews 10 is spiritual death.

Fortunately, we don’t have make educated guesses. In verse 26, it states that “if we go on sinning willfully after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins.” This severer punishment includes the cessation of sacrifice for sins. Jesus died once for all time.  We don’t have to offer bulls and goats constantly to atone for our sins. We only need to confess our sins, and he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins. However, His sacrifice will only atone for our sin as we abide in Him and turn to Him in repentance. If we cease to abide in Him, we are cut off from the nourishing vine, thrown away and are burned. (John 15:6) Verse 26 simply states that those who continue to willfully sin and thus defile the sanctifying blood have no further opportunity for forgiveness of sin.  Jesus’ sacrifice will no longer atone for their sins, they have been cut off from the people of God.  Of course, when sins can no longer be atoned for, we stand guilty before God and will be justly condemned along with the guilty.  We have spurned the Son of God himself, in whom we have eternal life.

Concluding Thoughts

Remember, this warning is specifically for those who have received the Holy Spirit. Just as those who spurned the Mosaic Law through defiant sin were put to death on the basis of two of three witnesses, so those Spirit-filled Christians who repeatedly spurn and reject the Holy Spirit’s leading will suffer spiritual death, eternity in Hell. The Law came with glory, but we now have something far more glorious. The eternal God in the person of the Holy Spirit living within us, a living law that teaches us to walk in greater holiness.

Invariably, the question becomes, how serious of a sin do I have to commit to be cut off from the people of God? Where is the tipping point?  God is ultimately the judge, but I would say this. Don’t test God like the Israelites tested God in the wilderness. (1 Cor. 10:9) “Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap.” (Gal. 6:7) We should not arrogantly presume upon His patience and kindness towards us. Recall Jesus’ parable of the unproductive fig tree. We need to continually abide in Christ, producing fruit of holiness through the Holy Spirit. The patience of God, in all it’s perfection, will not last forever towards those who continue in willful sin.

And He began telling this parable: “A man had a fig tree which had been planted in his vineyard; and he came looking for fruit on it and did not find any. And he said to the vineyard-keeper, ‘Behold, for three years I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree without finding any. Cut it down! Why does it even use up the ground?’ And he answered and said to him, ‘Let it alone, sir, for this year too, until I dig around it and put in fertilizer; and if it bears fruit next year, fine; but if not, cut it down.’” (Luke 13:6-9)


Setting Aside the Holy Spirit (Part 1)

This the first of a two-part post on the most serious warning we find in scripture addressed to believers, the warning to not reject the leading of the Holy Spirit in our lives. Part 1 addresses the warning given by Paul in 1 Thessalonians 4 to not live in sexual immorality. Paul says that Christians must not “set aside” the Holy Spirit through living in sin.  In Part 2, we’ll do a more detailed comparison between the Old and New Covenant, between the covenant people according to the flesh in the Old Testament, and the covenant people of God according to faith in the New Testament. We’ll see how those who set aside the Mosaic Law incurred the penalty of physical death.  In the New Covenant, those elect who set aside the Holy Spirit through continued sin incur an even greater punishment, spiritual death.

Paul’s Warning to the Thessalonian Church

Finally then, brethren, we request and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us instruction as to how you ought to walk and please God (just as you actually do walk), that you excel still more. For you know what commandments we gave you by the authority of the Lord Jesus. For this is the will of God, your sanctification; that is, that you abstain from sexual immorality; that each of you know how to possess his own vessel in sanctification and honor, not in lustful passion, like the Gentiles who do not know God;and that no man transgress and defraud his brother in the matter because the Lord is the avenger in all these things, just as we also told you before and solemnly warned you. For God has not called us for the purpose of impurity, but in sanctification. So, he who rejects this is not rejecting man but the God who gives His Holy Spirit to you. (1 Thessalonians 4:1-8)

In Paul’s earliest letter to the Thessalonian church,  he admonishes the Christian believers to live their lives in such a way to please God. They already are living in this way, but Paul wants them to continue this God-pleasing conduct to an even greater degree. Just as all the liturgical implements used within the Jewish tabernacle had to be set apart for sacred use in worshiping God (Ex. 30:29), so too must the disciples of Jesus be completely set apart from the sinful practices and consecrated as holy to God alone. Practically, this means abstaining from the sexual immorality so commonly committed by those who do not know God.  

This exhortation to live God-pleasing lives is not merely a suggestion, but a command and a strong warning. Jesus himself will avenge those who participate in sexual immorality (v. 6). Paul had told them this before, and he is emphasizing this warning once again. Anyone who rejects the Lord’s command by living in sin is not rebelling against man, but God Himself (v. 8).

To reject God is to stand in willful rebellion. It is to set aside His directives, and make a conscious decision to disobey and continue to do so in unrepentance. In fact, the Greek verb here (atheteo) translated as “rejects” and “rejecting” was frequently used within the Septuagint to communicate unfaithfulness and rebellion of the Israelites who turned their back on God. (See Ezekiel 39:23 and Daniel 9:7 for just a few the many examples).

Paul doesn’t stop there, however. The one who rejects God, also is implicitly rejecting the Holy Spirit whom God provides. Paul literally states that the one who rejects this command is rejecting God “who is giving His Holy Spirit to you.” (v. 8) He does not look only to the past, that God had given the Holy Spirit previously. Rather, this describes the giving of the Holy Spirit as a continuous, ongoing event. God is continuously giving His Holy Spirit to the believers right now. The phrase “who is giving” here (ton didonta) is a present active participle in the Greek, which communicates an ongoing, continual action in the present rather than a one-time event. Therefore, this can be interpreted to mean that the one repeatedly rejecting God through willful disobedience is also rejecting God’s present provision of the Holy Spirit, which is an implicit warning that the Holy Spirit will be removed from them.

The warning of the removal of the Spirit is not a new teaching. King David himself fell into serious sexual immorality during his reign, the same type of sin Paul warns of in his letter. David took Bathsheba, another man’s wife, purposefully sending her husband to the front lines to be killed in battle. After lying with Bathsheba and being confronted by Nathan the prophet for this serious sin, David wrote Psalm 51 in which he pleads for God’s forgiveness and acknowledges his grievous disobedience. In the midst of the prayerful psalm, David writes “Do not cast me away from Your presence / And do not take Your Holy Spirit from me.” (Psalm 51:11). Just as Paul warned the Thessalonian church, that those who willfully reject God through sexual immorality are rejecting God who is providing the Holy Spirit, here David has behaved immorally and realizes God may remove His Holy Spirit. Thus we see God’s consistency before and after the revelation of Jesus Christ, for with God the Father “there is no variation or shifting shadow.” (James 1:17)

In Part 2, we’ll tackle the parallels between the Old Testament and the New Testament, specifically looking at the people of God and what happens when they reject God’s instruction.